The military draft is the process of calling men between ages
18 and 26 to serve in the US Military.
This process comes into use only in war or other national emergencies.
The Congress and the President may take the decision regarding
the military draft.
When the US Military require more troops than the volunteer military
can supply, the Congress can pass a military draft. The President
cannot initiate a draft, but his signature is necessary on it.
After the President and the Congress decide in favor of a military
draft, a classification program would begin. Various examinations
take place on the registrants to check their suitability for military
service. They get adequate time to claim exemptions, deferments
or postponements. They need to meet the physical, mental and administrative
standards of the US Military to
get into the services. Local Boards in each community decide on
exemptions and deferments for clergymen, ministerial students
and men claiming for reclassification as conscientious objectors.
The military draft has the provision of a lottery
to determine the order for calling the registered men into service.
This lottery is based on birthdays. The registrants getting low
lottery numbers need to report for a physical, mental and moral
examination at a Military Entrance Processing Station. It is to
check whether they are fit to serve the US Military. After clearing
the examination, a registrant gets 10-days time to claim exemption,
postponement or deferment.
The Local and Appeal Boards do the processing of the registrant
claims. The registrants passing the military evaluation receive
induction orders. The inductees get 10 days to report to a local
Military Entrance Processing Station for induction. At present,
Selective Service must deliver the first inductees to the US Military
within 193 days from the effective date of military draft legislation.
The Vietnam War was the last occasion when a military
draft came into force. Several changes have come into
this process that time onward. These changes have reduced the
ways of deferring from the US Military service.